Moscow. 21 December. INTERFAX.RU - On the eve of the 30th anniversary of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of the Russian Federation, the head of the Ministry, Evgeniy Zinichev, told INTERFAX about the work of rescuers in a pandemic and unique high technologies to guard the rescue.
- The pandemic of the new coronavirus infection has certainly affected the lives of each of us. People all over the world are forced not only to change their habits, but also to reconsider approaches to organizing work processes, to look for new business solutions. How have the working conditions of rescuers changed, the aid providing standards in the new conditions?
- Yes, you are right, we, like other ministries, had to adjust the operating mode during the pandemic. On the one hand, we had to avoid an increase of infection among employees, on the other, in no way change, as you said, the "the aid providing standards".
The work of firefighters and rescuers cannot be remote, the lives and health of people depend on their actions. Therefore, we introduced a special work schedule for the reacting units and created a personnel reserve. If, for example, one employee got sick, it would be necessary to replace the entire guard and the whole area of the city could be left without cover, and this is unacceptable.
Therefore, EMERCOM of Russia continues to work to protect the civilians and economic facilities from emergencies.
- What other tasks have been and are being performed by the units of the EMERCOM of Russia in such conditions?
- First of all, it is, of course, special processing of buildings and structures. Since April of this year, units of the Russian Emergencies Ministry have treated almost 6,000 medical and 8,000 educational institutions, as well as 22,000 social service facilities with disinfecting solutions. In addition, there are more than 45 thousand buildings and structures of transport infrastructure, almost 10 thousand kilometers of roads and more than 220 thousand pieces of equipment. Just imagine, the total area of processed facilities is almost 180 million square meters.
From May to October, with the participation of the Russian Emergencies Ministry, 19 temporary accommodation centers were deployed for foreign citizens who, due to quarantine restrictions, were forced to stay in the border areas.
Taking into account the growing threats of a biological nature, we are re-equipping the units of the radiation, chemical and biological protection, rescue centers and specialized fire and rescue units with special equipment and equipment, we are revising the nomenclature and volumes of reserves of material resources, increasing the volume of medical personal protective equipment.
- This year was marked by such concepts as "remote work" and "self-isolation". Many were constantly at home. How did this affect the fire situation? How will the fire protection of dwellings change against the background of the growing number of "remote workers"?
- Despite the period of self-isolation associated with the pandemic, there are fewer man-made fires this year. Compared to the same period last year, their number decreased by 8.4%, deaths - by 7.5%, injured - by 13.3%, but the damage from fires increased by more than 10.6%.
The main causes of fires remain careless handling of fire - almost 72% of all fires, malfunction of electrical equipment networks - 11%, violation of the rules for the design and operation of furnaces - about 6%.
Of course, the rules of conduct for people in everyday life cause concern, especially where large families live.
Over the past two years, more than 400 thousand autonomous smoke detectors have been installed in places of residence of large families. Thanks to this, more than 1200 people were rescued, more than half of them are children.
This work should be continued. We try to use all communicative methods of communicating information about compliance with fire safety requirements to people. We conduct raids, door-to-door rounds, actively work through the media and social networks.
In addition, from March 1, 2021, new sets of rules will begin to operate, which provide for the equipment of residential premises, hallways and apartment corridors with autonomous smoke detectors, regardless of the number of storeys of the building, including in single-family residential buildings.
- In recent years, the Ministry of Emergency Situations, together with Roskosmos, has been actively developing an emergency space monitoring system. Tell us how this system is used today and when is it planned to fully complete its formation? What opportunities will open up for the department after this is done?
- The system of space monitoring of emergencies has been operating in the EMERCOM of Russia since 1997. And today its data is actively used in forecasting and monitoring emergency situations. As, for example, in the situation related to the oil spill in Norilsk this year. Space monitoring data helped to quickly estimate the area of contamination and determine the location of boom installation in order to prevent further spread of the oil slick.
Satellite data also helps to take timely measures when monitoring flood situations, for example, in spring, in order to avoid the formation of dangerous ice jams and prevent flooding of settlements.
This year a new mobile application "Thermal Points" was launched in test mode, in which we also use space monitoring data. Currently, more than 90% of detected hot spots are confirmed precisely as hot spots. This information is quickly communicated to field managers, which in turn reduces response time. It is very important. Indeed, in the first hours, it is possible to eliminate a fire with the efforts of just a few people and without any consequences. It is not possible in consequence to involve aviation, consolidated groupings of forces and means, to endanger the life and health of people.
The space monitoring system continues to evolve. This year, together with Roskosmos, a mobile receiving and transmitting complex was deployed in Yakutsk to monitor the passage of a flood and fire hazard in the Far Eastern and Siberian federal districts. The time for receiving data will not exceed two hours from the date of application.
The launch of the all-weather radar spacecraft Kondor-FKA is planned for next year. We are looking forward to it. It will allow monitoring in any weather conditions.
- Tell us more about the work of the integrated emergency monitoring and forecasting system. What challenges are most likely to be faced by the regions of Russia in the coming year and what measures are being taken to minimize the consequences?
- Each region has its own seasonal risks, their nature and timing vary from year to year. We are increasingly confronted with anomalous and non-regional phenomena. Therefore, when predicting emergency situations, a multifactorial analysis of the incoming information is carried out, including deviations of various indicators from the average long-term values. Analysis of changes in such indicators helps us to develop more accurate forecasts of emergencies and models of their development, respectively, to minimize negative consequences.
We also actively use Earth remote sensing data and aerial photography by unmanned aerial vehicles to simulate a possible situation.
Several information systems have already been created and are actively used to help in monitoring and forecasting emergencies.
For example, the automated information management system of the Unified State System of Prevention and Elimination of Emergency Situation (RSChS) contains data from various ministries and departments. Digital maps of Rosreestr are integrated into the system, access to data on real estate objects is provided, and, of course, information of the Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring (Rosgidromet) on actual and predicted weather conditions is provided.
The data of the information and control system of the Unified State System of Prevention and Elimination of Emergency Situatio (RSChS) are also used in the Atlas of Natural and Technogenic Hazards and Risks. Its first part is intended for ordinary citizens to obtain all the necessary information on personal safety issues. The second part is for the leader. It implements access to statistical and operational data, on the basis of which the development of the situation is modeled and expert support for planning and decision-making is provided. Taking into account the evolving epidemiological situation, the Atlas also contains recommendations to the population on the prevention of the spread of coronavirus infection, and it is also presented in another of our mobile application "EMERCOM of Russia".
- By the way, this application was launched not so long ago. Tell us more about it.
- We have conceived our own application "EMERCOM of Russia" as a resource equally useful to both children and adults as a personal assistant. The application will help you navigate and instantly find information about emergency actions and first aid, it will be useful both at home and on vacation.
The user will be able to call the rescue service, as well as determine the coordinates of his location, which he can share if necessary. For more detailed information, the user can always quickly go to the page of the official Internet portal of the Ministry of Emergencies of Russia.
The service includes not only sections with useful information, but also interactive ones. So, in the section "What to do?" the user has access to the order of actions and rules of conduct in an emergency with a voice assistant. And the section "The EMERCOM Recommends" contains the information about safety, the causes of emergencies and their prevention.
Among other things, in the application, you can check the personal readiness and readiness of your home for possible emergencies by filling in special checklists.
In the near future, we will add online information about adverse weather events to the application, and we also plan to implement the possibility of an official appeal of citizens to the EMERCOM of Russia.
- How was the automated centralized warning system used during the pandemic? How is it developing at the present time?
- To inform the population about the measures and rules of behavior during a pandemic, both stationary street loudspeakers and mobile complexes based on cars were used in all regions, and of course SMS notification was used. This year, warning systems were tested centrally in all regions. Such checks have not been carried out for many years and people have become unaccustomed to them. Now we will check it regularly, twice a year - in the first ten days of March and October.
In addition, the EMERCOM of Russia, together with the Ministry of Digital Development, is developing a number of normative documents on the issues of public notification. So, from January 1, 2021, the Regulation on Public Warning Systems and the Regulation on the Organization of Operational and Technical Maintenance of these systems will come into force. The main requirement for them will be compliance with the modern level of technology when alerting in emergency situations.
Interfax interview materials: https://www.interfax.ru/interview/742293